Tuesday, January 8, 2008


Mongol rule and successor states, 13th, 14th centuries

Mongol tribal confederacy under Genghis (Cengiz), the Great Khan, or Khagan (Hakan), 1206. Capital city: Karakorum

Conquests in China, Central Asia and Iran, Russia and Eastern Europe, Mesopotamia and Syria

* Golden Horde in Russia
* Ilkhans in Iran; Centered in Tabriz and Sultaniyya
(Sack of Baghdad, 1258)
* Mongol Yuan dynasty in China; Kubilai Khan (1260-1294);
Capital of the great khanate: Khanbalik (modern Beijing)
* Chagatai khanate

Connections across Eurasia through the “Pax Mongolica”

Consolidation of global trade network; radical increase in volume of trade across Eurasia

Silk road, controlled and secured by the Mongol rule: creates space for the exchange of luxury goods, for cultural encounters between the Mediterranean and Asia, for the transfer of technology and science

Mongol decline renders land routes dangerous; explorations of sea routes to shape emerging early modern world

Timurid invasions, 1360’s - 1405

Mongol legacy

Cultural eclecticism and inclusivism of Mongol rulers across Asia; east Asian cultural forms travel west. Appropriations of local cultural forms by newly established Mongol polities

Genghisid notions of world rule: to shape notions of world rule in the late medieval and early modern Turco-Persian world, in the Timurid, Ottoman, Mughal empires