he Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world's first great urban civilizations that flourished in the vast river plains of what are now
Urban Civilization of two cities,
These cities of the period 2500-1500 BC, approximately the same time as the early city-states of
Spreading over a vast geography from high mountains to coastal regions, large cities and smaller towns grew up along the major trade routes as administrative and ritual center.
Major excavations were begun at the larger sites,
Well planned cities and towns built on massive mud brick platforms
Grid plan of streets and lanes oriented north-south and east-west
No community temple but fire altars in private homes and neighborhood centers
Terra cota figurines of women
No evidence of military ability and/or weaponry
Two storied housing complete with bath facilities and a drainage system
Granaries and industrial complexes that suggest some level of state control of economic resources and production.
Seals made of stone and engraved with symbols and animal motifs. The most common animal on the seals is a mythical unicorn. Seals of animals with inscription used for administrative purposes.
No burial ground and no temple
The use of elaborate ornaments, sculpture and terra cotta figurines
Seals and writing, decorated pottery and new ritual objects are unifying cultural symbols of the Harappan phase.
Great Bath and Granary
A distinctive form of writing Undeciphered pictography of 400 signs
Some kind of centralized state, extensive town planning
Same period with the Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations
Recent excavations and reexamination
- revealing another possible site for a temple. Tree temple
- revealing fire altars as public ritual sites, indicating precursors to Hinduism and Zoroastrianism.
- revealing personal icons, indicating precursors to personal devotion and meditation as in Hinduism and Buddhism
- a particular icon that indicates “priest king” and thus clan structure
- Why did this sophisticated civilization not spread beyond the
- Why did the cities undergo decline?